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Labour/employment law data for Israel

1. Is it a legal requirement that employees must receive an employment contract? Within 30 days from the first date of employment, the employer should give a written document to the employee specifying the terms of the employment. Any change of the terms of the employment requires same written notice.
2. What factors constitute a fair dismissal i.e.legally justifiable reasons to terminate employment without the need to pay compensation? Generally speaking, an employer can dismiss an employee for any reason other than reasons of discrimination (sex, sexual preference, personal status, parenthood, age, race, religion, nationality, country of birth, political views, service in the army, physical disability, etc.).
Notice of dismissal (1 - 30 days depending on the time of actual employment) should be made in writing.
Dismissal following 1 year of employment entitles the employee to severance payment of 1 month for each year of employment.
Theoretically, severe dishonesty is the only ground that entitles the employer to dismiss an employee without severance payment. Practically, the labor tribunals deny employees' right to receive severance payments very rarely and in very extreme situations.
3. What is good practice with regard to dismissal procedures to minimise the risk of claims for unfair dismissal? Any dismissal must be made in writing and should state - if asked for by the employee - the reasons for the dismissal.
4. If an employee is dismissed unfairly what is the financial range of compensation that can be made to employees? In the event that an employee is dismissed as a result of discrimination, the employee may be entitled to receive, without showing any damage, a compensation of approximately EURO10,000.
5. Do employees have the right to be members of a trade union? Usually yes.
6. Is there any legal requirement for an employer to contribute to a pension for employees? Not all employers. It depends on the applicable collective bargaining agreement.
7. What are standard maternity rights? Several easements during and after pregnancy.
8. What are parental leave rights (including paternity leave)? 3 months of paid vacation - to any of the parents (but not to both of them).
9. When are employees eligible for redundancy payments? During the first 50 - 175 days of their unemployment (depending on their age and number of dependants). Said period can be extended for another period of up to 6 months if the employee undergo a certified career change.
10. What are the statutory redundancy payment limits? In accordance with his/her average salary with a cap of the "Average Salary in the Market"
11. Can existing employees be dismissed if you buy a business with employees? In any event of change of employers all employees are considered as dismissed. Change of control in a corporation is not considered as change of employer..
12. Any other general legislation? Anti-discrimination and sexual harassments; Employment of foreign employees; Employment of employees via labour agencies; Employment of minors; Minimum salary and payment of salary instructions; Dismissal regulations; Working and rest time; Annual leave; Sick leave (including of parent, offspring and spouse); Safety at work; Collective bargaining agreements, etc..